Type to search

Are Air Conditioners Bad for the Environment?


An air conditioning unit has become indispensable to modern life, relieving sweltering temperatures by providing the global demand for space cooling, especially in the Philippines. However, as concerns about the climate crisis and environmental sustainability grow, it’s crucial to examine the impact of an air conditioning unit on the environment.

Here, we will delve into the various aspects of air conditioning systems and explore whether they are bad for the environment.

Is An Air Conditioner Bad For the Environment?


The impact of air conditioning systems is a complex and nuanced issue. While air conditioners provide essential cooling in many parts of the world, there are concerns about their potentially bad environmental effects. 

An air conditioning unit can help you stay cool by cooling spaces in your home environment, but these cooling systems can contribute to global warming and cause extreme heat waves. 

Here are some factors why we consider an air conditioning system to be bad for the environment:

Energy Consumption

Every other appliance requires energy. But traditional and old air conditioners require more energy than modern air conditioners. Power is often derived from the burning and usage of fossil fuels (non-renewable fuels). This adds to greenhouse gas emissions, which can contribute to global warming, thus leading to climate change due to ozone depletion in our planet. 

In fact, cooling takes up 10% of the global electricity demand, as stated by the International Energy Agency. However, developing energy-saving and eco-friendly air conditioners and using renewable energy sources are helping mitigate these environmental impacts. 

If you can’t afford to buy a new AC but still want to help save the planet and save energy, you can try electric fans and humidity controllers to cool your space. These devices can not only cool the temperature of your room but will also help you consume less electricity and thus lessen the strain on your electricity grids. 


The refrigerants used in air conditioners have historically included substances with high Global Warming Potential (GWP), such as hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants. When leaked into the atmosphere, these gases contribute to the greenhouse effect. 

The refrigerant industry in many countries in the world is phasing out the use of high-GWP refrigerants in favor of more environmentally friendly refrigerants, such as hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs). The Montreal Protocol created new rules that mandated alternative refrigerants to mitigate the effect of global warming on our planet.

Urban Heat Island Effect

The widespread use of air conditioners in urban areas can contribute to the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. The continuous release of warm air from air conditioning units and the heat-absorbing properties of buildings and pavement can elevate outdoor temperatures. Urban planning strategies, green spaces, and energy-efficient cooling technologies can help address this concern.

Do Air Conditioners Emit Harmful Gases?

Yes, air conditioners can emit harmful gases even without noticeable leaks. Traditional air conditioning systems often employ refrigerants with a high Global Warming Potential, such as hydrofluorocarbons. These substances, released into the atmosphere through leaks or improper disposal, contribute to the greenhouse effect and climate change. While the industry is gradually shifting toward more eco-friendly refrigerants with lower GWP, the challenge remains in phasing out older, less sustainable units.

The operation of an air conditioner involves moving air inside and outside a building using electric coils and a pump. The system includes a condenser that expels hot air outside and an evaporator that introduces cool air inside. A substance called refrigerant is utilized to facilitate this air circulation. Although it aids in air movement by changing from a cool gas to a cool liquid and back, its use also releases greenhouse gases.

Historically, air conditioners used chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as the liquid refrigerant, commonly known as Freon. Unfortunately, CFCs were found to be harmful to the ozone layer, leading scientists to recognize their negative impact in the 1970s. In response to this environmental concern, manufacturers shifted from CFCs to a less harmful alternative known as halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), which have a reduced negative effect on the ozone layer.

These substances, released into the atmosphere through leaks or improper disposal, contribute to the greenhouse effect and climate change. The industry is gradually transitioning to more eco-friendly refrigerants with lower GWP, but the challenge lies in phasing out older, less sustainable units.

Does an AC Make the Environment Hotter?

Heatwave so hot that a woman is considering buying an air conditioner in the Philippines

If you’re wondering whether air conditioners make the environment hotter, the answer to that is yes. But first, knowing about hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) or Freons is important. HFCs catch the sun’s heat that would normally go away into the air, making our world warmer.

Here’s the tricky part: HFCs can be a whopping 5000 times stronger at trapping heat than carbon dioxide gas. So, when HFC gets into the air, it absorbs heat instead of releasing it into outer space. They can make things much hotter by trapping way more heat than usual. To add to the concern, these HFCs stick around in the air for a long time, from 15 to 29 years, continuing to warm up the environment.

So, in simple terms, because of the old refrigerants they use, air conditioners can make the environment hotter by holding or trapping a lot of heat in space.

Why is Air Conditioning Bad for Pollution?

Air conditioning plays a role in air pollution through several processes. The energy needed to operate air conditioners typically comes from burning non-renewable fuels, which release pollutants into the air. The pollutants released include:

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

This greenhouse gas is a major contributor to climate change. Burning non-renewable fuel releases large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, trapping heat and leading to global warming.

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

This gas is produced when fossil fuels containing sulfur (coal and oil) are burned. Sulfur dioxide can contribute to acid rain and respiratory issues in humans.

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)

When fossil fuels are burned at extreme temperatures, they can create nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides can cause smog and contribute to respiratory problems, particularly in urban areas.

Moreover, the manufacturing and disposal of air conditioning units also generate emissions that add to the overall impact of these systems. This includes the production processes of manufacturing and the disposal of old units, which can release harmful chemicals into the environment.

How to Lessen the Environmental Impact of an AC

How to Clean a Wall Air Conditioner Without Removing It

Reducing the impact of an air conditioner involves adopting practices and technologies that minimize energy consumption, use eco-friendly refrigerants, and promote responsible manufacturing and disposal. Here are several ways to lessen the environmental impact of an air conditioner:

Choose Better Models with Thermostats

Opt for air conditioners with high Energy Efficiency Ratios (EER) or Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratios (SEER). These efficiency standards indicate the unit’s efficiency in converting electricity into cooling power.

Look for AC units with the ENERGY STAR label, which signifies compliance with energy efficiency guidelines set by environmental protection agencies. Lower STAR labels mean that the AC units require more energy, more electricity, and more fossil fuel. 

Consider investing in newer AC models that utilize advanced technologies, such as inverter technology. Inverter-based systems adjust compressor speed based on cooling needs, improving efficiency and reducing energy consumption.

If you don’t have a thermostat, install programmable thermostats to regulate the temperature based on your daily schedule. This prevents unnecessary cooling in unoccupied spaces, saving energy and reducing its impact.

Regular Maintenance

Schedule routine maintenance for your AC system to ensure it operates efficiently. Clean or replace filters regularly, always check for leaks, and inspect other components to maintain optimal performance.

Well-maintained units require less energy, which can reduce energy consumption and help lessen the environmental impacts of an AC unit.

Utilize Natural Cooling Methods

Take advantage of natural ventilation and cooling strategies, such as opening windows during cooler evenings and nights. This reduces the reliance on AC units, especially in mild weather conditions.

Switch to Renewable Energy

Consider powering your AC system with renewable energy sources like solar panels or wind power. It can reduce the reliance on electricity generated, lessening the potent greenhouse gases that cause global warming.

Proper Refrigerant Management

Choose air conditioners that use environmentally friendly refrigerants with lower GWP. Newer refrigerants, such as hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs), have a reduced impact on climate change.

Ensure proper handling and disposal of refrigerants during maintenance and unit replacement to prevent emissions, as promoted by the United Nations Environment Program. Regularly check for any damage to prevent leaks.

Insulate and Seal Spaces

Improve insulation and seal gaps in windows and doors to minimize heat transfer. This helps maintain a more stable indoor temperature, reducing the need for excessive cooling.

When replacing an air conditioner, ensure proper disposal by following local regulations. Recycle components, and consider donating or selling functional units instead of discarding them.

By incorporating these measures, individuals and businesses can reduce the environmental impact of air conditioning systems while maintaining indoor comfort.


While air conditioners undoubtedly contribute to environmental challenges, further technology advancements and a growing awareness of sustainability drive positive changes in the industry. Energy-efficient air conditioning models, the transition to eco-friendly refrigerants, and improved waste management practices all contribute to reducing the environmental impact of air conditioning systems.

As consumers, businesses, and policymakers continue to prioritize sustainability, the future of air conditioning may well balance comfort with environmental responsibility.

JP Reyes

JP has been in the aircon industry for almost as long as he has been alive. As a child JP would help his tatay fix aircon units at their junk shop in Cavite. After graduating UP in the early 2000's, JP then started his own Aircon servicing business and within 5 years had 10 shops in 8 different cities. Fast forward to today and JP brings all his experience and expertise online to give readers trustworthy advice and reviews about Air-conditioning buying, servicing, cleaning and repair in the Philippines.

  • 1