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One of the widely used air conditioners is the window type aircon. Its basic functions and design make it a consumer favorite, especially during the early days when the air conditioning system was first introduced. Due to this, a window air conditioner is also regarded as a room air conditioner since most people install it in their rooms.
Generally, a window type aircon is mounted on window sills or by creating a rectangular hole in the wall that will fit the cooling system. It can maintain refreshing and cool air, with other perks such as varying fan speed, thermostat, and low energy cost and maintenance. Nowadays, it also comes with an air filter.
But how does a window type aircon work? What are its general parts? And how does each part work to maintain a balanced indoor temperature?
The refrigeration cycle follows the basic idea that heat naturally flows in the opposite direction of cold air. This concept allows the manufacturers to develop not just an air conditioners, but also refrigerators and other chilling devices and appliances.
For a window type aircon, the cycle starts in the compressor. An electric motor powers this component so the compressor can pump the refrigerant to the coils. It’s also responsible for causing the change in pressure in the two compartments – condenser and cooling coil – for the heat exchange to occur.
Highly pressurized refrigerant circulates within the system until the cycle is finished. Hence, evaporation occurs when heat is absorbed in the system, and it condenses when it gets released. A window type aircon is capable of reducing the humidity of the environment by incorporating all these components in a single unit.
The air conditioning cycle of a window type aircon relies heavily on various parts such as the evaporator coil, condenser coil, expansion valve, and compressor. The general working idea for most air conditioners is that warm air goes into the system and cold and fresh air gets released afterward. The excess heat is then released outside of the house via an air duct or directly from the condensing panel.
For this cycle to happen, the evaporator side must face the room that’s needed for chilling while the condensing side must face outside the house. This will ensure an exchange of warm and cool air inside the dedicated space.
In addition, these components are all located on the side facing the house’s outdoor boundary. But how does each part of the chilling system work individually and as a group?
The main job of an evaporator coil, also known as a cooling coil, is to absorb the indoor heat. It is filled with a refrigerant, which is pumped by the compressor into the metering device to cool the incoming air.
Each air conditioner unit has a refrigerant, which is a chilling agent responsible for removing the excess humidity level in the room. Moreover, the cooling coil and the condensing panel are separated by an insulated partition.
On the other hand, the condenser is responsible for releasing the excess heat outside of the room. Once the hot air is cooled and the refrigerant is pressurized enough in the compressor, the hot air will go to the condenser panel for release.
This component is important in every window type aircon because a faulty condenser may result in a build-up of high pressure and temperature inside the system. This will increase the energy intake and overall monthly electricity bill.
Moreover, the air-cooled condenser works alongside a propeller fan and fan motor to circulate the airflow to and from the coils. It’s a continuous coil made of copper tubing.
As previously discusses, the compressor pumps the refrigerant into the coils to cool the warm air inside the house. It serves as the heart of every air conditioner because it kickstarts the circulation of the cooling agent and energy for the cycle to begin.
The expansion chamber’s job is to remove the pressure from the warm refrigerant before entering the condensing panel. This part of the AC allows the expansion of the hot liquid refrigerant in order for it to change into a liquid-vapor.
The hot vapor refrigerant will now enter the condenser panel, where it will be cooled. A capillary tube is most used in any expansion device because it effectively reduces the pressure of the refrigerant.
Every window type aircon has a condenser fan that sucks the atmospheric air and circulates it into the panel. It also transfers the heat from the hot refrigerant vapor outside of the system, to avoid the condensing panel to overheat. In most cases, the window unit has a double shaft fan motor mounted on both sides for a more effective cooling capacity.
The window type aircon has a dedicated control panel for the users. The indoor parts include these components with the addition of the air filter, front panel, drain pan, fan blower, and filter drier. If the components that are present in the outdoor side of the window AC are responsible for the refrigeration cycle, then the aforementioned parts are used for the following reasons.
Users can access the controls, and monitor the temperature of the room from the front panel. The fan speed and room temperature adjustments can be made using the control interface. The simplest form of the front panel includes a rotary knob to manually adjust the settings.
The air filter ensures that the air circulating inside the room is fresh and free from airborne pollutants. It can be in the form of a HEPA filter, activated carbon, or ionization filter.
Fan blowers maintain the right amount of airflow inside the room. It discharges the cooled air for a more comfortable indoor experience.
The excess moisture in the cooling agent can cause overheating. The filter drier ensures this moisture is fully removed during the refrigeration cycle.
During condensation, excess water will drip from the outside compartment of the window AC. A drain pan contains this and properly discharges it outside the house.
A window type aircon is one of the early forms of air conditioner presented on the market. The indoor convenience it gave to the consumers is what kept the demands high, up until today. It also led to the manufacturing of new generations of air conditioners, such as split-system, wall-mounted, and portable air conditioners.
It’s one of the low-cost air conditioning devices that many can afford. Each part is essential in maintaining a stable temperature inside the house. These parts are also the basis for further advancements in the air conditioning industry.